Physical consequences of childhood adversity

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Chapter 10 endnote 14, from How Emotions are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context is:

Kids who were bullied as children show low-grade inflammation that persists into adulthood, which predisposes them to a host of psychiatric and physical diseases.

In addition to the brain changes, there are other examples of the negative effects of neglect or maltreatment:

  • Increased arborization of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to enhanced SNS reactivity and inflammation response[1][2][3]
  • Decreased anti-inflammatory gene expression[4] and increased inflammation[5]
  • Increased physical illness[6] and chronic illness[7] that persists across the course of someone's life[8]
  • Decreased financial worth[9]
  • Mental illness[10][11][12][13] [14]
  • Shorter telomeres[15][16][17][18][19]
  • Earlier death[20]

It's not necessary for children to experience adversity firsthand. Children of mothers who are lower in social status show the biological effects of chronic stress.[21]

Notes on the Notes

  1. Capitanio, John P., and Steven W. Cole. 2015. "Social instability and immunity in rhesus monkeys: the role of the sympathetic nervous system." Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370 (1669): 20140104.
  2. Sloan, Erica K., John P. Capitanio, Ross P. Tarara, Sally P. Mendoza, William A. Mason, and Steve W. Cole. 2007. "Social stress enhances sympathetic innervation of primate lymph nodes: mechanisms and implications for viral pathogenesis." Journal of Neuroscience 27 (33): 8857-8865.
  3. Sloan, Erica K., John P. Capitanio, and Steve W. Cole. 2008. "Stress-induced remodeling of lymphoid innervation." Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 22 (1): 15-21.
  4. Murphy, Michael LM, George M. Slavich, Edith Chen, and Gregory E. Miller. 2015. "Targeted rejection predicts decreased anti-inflammatory gene expression and increased symptom severity in youth with asthma." Psychological Science 26 (2): 111-121.
  5. Copeland, William E., Dieter Wolke, Suzet Tanya Lereya, Lilly Shanahan, Carol Worthman, and E. Jane Costello. 2014. "Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (21): 7570-7575.
  6. Felitti, Vincent J., Robert F. Anda, Dale Nordenberg, David F. Williamson, Alison M. Spitz, Valerie Edwards, Mary P. Koss, and James S. Marks. 1998. "Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study." American Journal of Preventive Medicine 14 (4): 245-258.
  7. Piazza, Jennifer R., Susan T. Charles, Martin J. Sliwinski, Jacqueline Mogle, and David M. Almeida. 2013. "Affective reactivity to daily stressors and long-term risk of reporting a chronic physical health condition." Annals of Behavioral Medicine 45 (1): 110-120.
  8. Green, Jennifer Greif, Katie A. McLaughlin, Patricia A. Berglund, Michael J. Gruber, Nancy A. Sampson, Alan M. Zaslavsky, and Ronald C. Kessler. 2010. "Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication I: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders." Archives of General Psychiatry 67 (2): 113-123.
  9. Lee et al 2013 [full reference to be provided]
  10. Harvey, Peterson, & Benca, 2006 [full reference to be provided]
  11. Schilling, Elizabeth A., Robert H. Aseltine, and Susan Gore. 2008. "The impact of cumulative childhood adversity on young adult mental health: measures, models, and interpretations." Social Science & Medicine 66 (5): 1140-1151
  12. Copeland, William E., Dieter Wolke, Adrian Angold, and E. Jane Costello. 2013. "Adult psychiatric outcomes of bullying and being bullied by peers in childhood and adolescence." JAMA Psychiatry 70 (4): 419-426.
  13. Kessler, Ronald C., Katie A. McLaughlin, Jennifer Greif Green, Michael J. Gruber, Nancy A. Sampson, Alan M. Zaslavsky, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola et al. 2010. "Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys." The British Journal of Psychiatry 197 (5): 378-385.
  14. McLaughlin, Katie A., Jennifer Greif Green, Michael J. Gruber, Nancy A. Sampson, Alan M. Zaslavsky, and Ronald C. Kessler. 2012. "Childhood adversities and first onset of psychiatric disorders in a national sample of US adolescents." Archives of General Psychiatry 69 (11): 1151-1160.
  15. Asok, A., K. Bernard, T. L. Roth, J. B. Rosen, and M. Dozier. 2013. "Parental responsiveness moderates the association between early-life stress and reduced telomere length." Development and psychopathology 25 (3): 577-585.
  16. Entringer, Sonja, Elissa S. Epel, Robert Kumsta, Jue Lin, Dirk H. Hellhammer, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Stefan Wüst, and Pathik D. Wadhwa. 2011. "Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (33): E513-E518.
  17. Kiecolt-Glaser, Janice K., Jean-Philippe Gouin, Nan-ping Weng, William B. Malarkey, David Q. Beversdorf, and Ronald Glaser. 2011. "Childhood adversity heightens the impact of later-life caregiving stress on telomere length and inflammation." Psychosomatic Medicine 73 (1): 16-22.
  18. Price, Lawrence H., Hung-Teh Kao, Darcy E. Burgers, Linda L. Carpenter, and Audrey R. Tyrka. 2013. "Telomeres and early-life stress: an overview." Biological Psychiatry 73 (1): 15-23.
  19. Shalev, I., T. E. Moffitt, K. Sugden, B. Williams, Renate M. Houts, A. Danese, J. Mill, L. Arseneault, and A. Caspi. 2013. "Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study." Molecular Psychiatry 18 (5): 576-581.
  20. Mroczek, Daniel K., Robert S. Stawski, Nicholas A. Turiano, Wai Chan, David M. Almeida, Shevaun D. Neupert, and Avron Spiro. 2015. "Emotional reactivity and mortality: Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study." The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 70 (3): 398-406.
  21. Sheridan, Margaret A., Joan How, Melanie Araujo, Michelle A. Schamberg, and Charles A. Nelson. 2013. "What are the links between maternal social status, hippocampal function, and HPA axis function in children?" Developmental Science 16 (5): 665-675.