Chapter 4 endnote 27, from Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context is:
Every other intrinsic network in the brain overlaps with the interoceptive network in at least one of its regions. So the interoceptive network doesn’t create all of its predictions by itself.
The interoceptive network doesn’t create all of its predictions by itself. Interoception is closely tied to the two other intrinsic networks I listed briefly at the beginning of the chapter: the multimodal integration network and the control network (also known as the frontoparietal control network or the executive function network). All three overlap with the interoceptive network, so they contribute to interoceptive predictions. (In fact, the frontoparietal control network and part of the interoceptive network — usually called the salience network — along with a third network called the dorsal attention network, is sometimes called the multiple demand network or the task positive network.) Are you confused yet? Remember, scientists name networks in line with their own interests and experiments.
The multimodal integration network, which integrates prediction error in vision, hearing, touch, and interoception, adjusts interoceptive predictions based on the state of the outside world. The multimodal integration network overlaps with the interoception network the a set of regions, some of which include:
- The anterior insula, tucked under the frontal and temporal lobes on the lateral surface of the brain
- The ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (just above the anterior insula), also called Broca's Area
- The anterior mid cingulate cortex on the medial surface of the brain, also called dorsal anterior cingulate cortex
- The supplementary motor cortex just dorsal to the mid cingulate cortex
The control network is an optimizer that helps the brain make choices that keep your energy budget balanced. It helps to focus the brain’s attention and select between conflicting predictions. The control and interoceptive networks overlap at the anterior insula and at the mid cingulate cortex.
Notes on the Notes
- Van den Heuvel, Martijn P., and Olaf Sporns. 2011. “Rich-Club Organization of the Human Connectome.” Journal of Neuroscience 31 (44): 15775–15786.
- Sepulcre, Jorge, Mert R. Sabuncu, Thomas B. Yeo, Hesheng Liu, and Keith A. Johnson. 2012. "Stepwise connectivity of the modal cortex reveals the multimodal organization of the human brain." The Journal of Neuroscience 32 (31): 10649-10661.
- Vincent, Justin L., Itamar Kahn, Abraham Z. Snyder, Marcus E. Raichle, and Randy L. Buckner. 2008. "Evidence for a frontoparietal control system revealed by intrinsic functional connectivity." Journal of Neurophysiology 100 (6): 3328-3342.
- Seeley, William W., Vinod Menon, Alan F. Schatzberg, Jennifer Keller, Gary H. Glover, Heather Kenna, Allan L. Reiss, and Michael D. Greicius. 2007. "Dissociable intrinsic connectivity networks for salience processing and executive control." Journal of Neuroscience 27 (9): 2349-2356.
- Corbetta, Maurizio, J. Michelle Kincade, and Gordon L. Shulman. 2002. "Neural systems for visual orienting and their relationships to spatial working memory." Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 14 (3): 508-523.
- Fedorenko, Evelina, John Duncan, and Nancy Kanwisher. 2013. "Broad domain generality in focal regions of the frontal and parietal cortex." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110 (141): 16616-16621.
- Fox, Michael D., Abraham Z. Snyder, Justin L. Vincent, Maurizio Corbetta, David C. Van Essen, and Marcus E. Raichle. 2005. "The human brain is intrinsically organized into dynamic, anticorrelated functional networks." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102 (27): 9673-9678.
- Power, Jonathan D., Alexander L. Cohen, Steven M. Nelson, Gagan S. Wig, Kelly Anne Barnes, Jessica A. Church, Alecia C. Vogel et al. 2011. "Functional network organization of the human brain." Neuron 72 (4): 665-678