More evidence against the classical view of emotion

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Chapter 1 endnote 46, from How Emotions are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context is:

Just as instances of the category “Cocker Spaniel” vary in their physical attributes (tail length, nose length, coat thickness, running speed, and so on) more than genes alone can account for, so might instances of “Anger” vary in their physical manifestations (facial movements, heart rate, hormones, vocal acoustics, neural activity, and so on), and this variation might be related to the environment or context. [...] This variability is not infinite, of course, but constrained by the patterns that are possible in the body and available in one’s culture. For evidence that emotions have no vocal signatures and hormone signatures, see...

For evidence that different emotions do not have vocal essences, see this reference.[1]

For evidence that neurotransmitters and hormones like dopamine and serotonin are not chemical essences of emotion, see these references.[2][3]


Notes on the Notes

  1. Russell, James A., Jo-Anne Bachorowski, and José-Miguel Fernández-Dols. 2003. "Facial and vocal expressions of emotion." Annual review of psychology 54 (1): 329-349.
  2. Doya, Kenji. 2009. "Modulators of decision making." Nature Neuroscience 11 (4): 410-416.
  3. Barrett, Lisa Feldman, and Eliza Bliss‐Moreau. 2009. "Affect as a psychological primitive." Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 41: 167-218.