Infants and emotional expressions across cultures
Chapter 1 endnote 12, from Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context is:
The adults were distinguishing fear from anger based on the context, without seeing facial movements at all.
Camras and colleagues videotaped 11-month-old European American, Chinese, & Japanese infants in several emotion eliciting situations and coded babies' body and facial movements. They found cultural differences, for example, European American infants cried and smiled more than Chinese infants. When studying three-year-old girls, Camras and her colleagues found that European and Chinese girls who are adopted by American families are more expressive when compared to Chinese American girls raised in Chinese American families, who are in turn more expressive than girls raised in mainland China. If emotional expressions are indeed universal, then these cultural differences should not occur in babies.
Notes on the Notes
- Camras, Linda A., Harriet Oster, Joseph Campos, Rosemary Campos, Tatsuo Ujiie, Kazuo Miyake, Lei Wang, and Zhaolan Meng. 1998. "Production of emotional facial expressions in European American, Japanese and Chinese infants." Developmental Psychology 34 (4): 616-628.
- Camras, Linda A., Roger Bakeman, Yinghe Chen, Katherine Norris, and Thomas R. Cain. 2006. "Culture, Ethnicity, and Children’s Facial Expressions: A Study of European American, Mainland Chinese, Chinese American, and Adopted Chinese Girls." Emotion: 6 (10): 103-114.
- Camras, Linda A., Zhaolan Meng, Tatsuo Ujiie, Shamez Dharamsi, Kazuo Miyake, Harriet Oster, Lei Wang, Jennifer Cruz, Amy Murdoch, and Joseph Campos. 2002. "Observing Emotion in Infants: Facial Expression, Body Behavior, and Rater Judgments of Responses to an Expectancy-Violating Event." Emotion 2 (2): 179-193.
- Camras, Linda A., Harriet Oster, Tatsuo Ujiie, Joseph J. Campos, Roger Bakeman, and Zhaolan Meng. 2007. "Do infants show distinct negative facial expressions for different negative emotions?: Emotional expression in European-American, Chinese, and Japanese infants." Infancy 11 (2): 131–155
- Camras, Linda A. and others. 2017. "Spontaneously produced facial expressions in infants and children." In The Science of Facial Expression, edited by Jose-Miguel Fernandez Dols & James A. Russell, 279-296. New York: Oxford University Press.