Gaze following in chimps

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Chapter 12 endnote 23, from How Emotions are Made: The Secret Life of the Brain by Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context is:

Chimps also do not realize that goal-based information resides inside the heads of other creatures.

Infant chimpanzees learn to follow the gaze of a caregiver starting at one month of age, but then lose this ability by 10 months or so.[1][2]

Adult chimps follow one another's gaze under certain circumstances in the wild, but generally speaking, they don’t use gaze to communicate, to socially cue one another, or to teach each other during cooperative social interactions.[3] This probably explains why apes don’t worry about being socially appropriate: they cannot monitor their own categorizations with respect to the norms of their group.

See also

Notes on the Notes

  1. Matsuzawa, Tetsuro. 2010. “Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees: A Trade-Off Between Memory and Abstraction.” In The Making of Human Concepts, edited by Denis Mareschal, Paul C. Quinn, and Stephen E. G. Lea, 227–244. New York: Oxford University Press.
  2. Matsuzawa, Tetsuro. 2011. [full reference to be provided]
  3. Hare, Brian. 2011. "From hominoid to hominid mind: what changed and why?" Annual Review of Anthropology 40: 293-309.