Attack in fear
Chapter 11 endnote 20, from Lisa Feldman Barrett.
Some context is:
Women are supposed to be victims, and good victims shouldn’t become angry; they’re supposed to be afraid. [...] This belief exists even though all mammals attack during threat.
There are many cases in nature where animals attack in threatening situations from which there is no escape. For example, a rat will attack when faced with a predator like an cat or an electric shock prod. Squirrels attack rattlesnakes. So technically speaking, from a standpoint of population thinking, if heat-of-passion is an admissible defense for anger, it should also be admissible for cases involving fear!
Notes on the Notes
- Fanselow, Michael S. 1994. "Neural organization of the defensive behavior system responsible for fear." Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 1 (4): 429-438.
- Fanselow, Michael S., and Laurie S. Lester. 1988. "A functional behavioristic approach to aversively motivated behavior: Predatory imminence as a determinant of the topography of defensive behavior", In Evolution and Learning, edited by Robert C. Bolles and Michael D. Beecher, 185-211. Hillsdale, N. J: Erlbaum.
- Faure, Alexis, Sheila M. Reynolds, Jocelyn M. Richard, and Kent C. Berridge. 2008. "Mesolimbic dopamine in desire and dread: enabling motivation to be generated by localized glutamate disruptions in nucleus accumbens." Journal of Neuroscience 28 (28): 7184-7192.
- Reynolds, Sheila M., and Kent C. Berridge. 2008. "Emotional environments retune the valence of appetitive versus fearful functions in nucleus accumbens." Nature neuroscience 11 (4): 423-425.
- Treit, Dallas, J. P. J. Pinel, and H. C. Fibiger. 1981. "Conditioned defensive burying: a new paradigm for the study of anxiolytic agents." Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 15 (4): 619-626.
- Coss, Richard G., and Donald H. Owings. 1989. "Rattler Battlers." Natural History 5: 30-35.
- Coss, Richard G., and Donald H. Owings. 1978. "Snake‐directed Behavior by Snake Naive and Experienced California Ground Squirrels in a Simulated Burrow." Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 48 (4): 421-435.
- Owings, Donald H., and Richard G. Coss. 1977. "Snake mobbing by California ground squirrels: adaptive variation and ontogeny." Behaviour 62 (1): 50-68.